Normally the neck looks short in newborns because it tends to get lost in the chubby cheeks and folds of skin. It's more noticeable in premature babies, but isn't usually seen in babies born very late in pregnancy. However, pink or red areas, sometimes called salmon patches , are common and generally disappear within the first year.
If this is the case, you can carefully trim your baby's nails with a pair of small scissors. Sometimes parents are concerned about the curved appearance of their newborn's feet and legs. But if you recall the usual position of the fetus in the womb during the final months of pregnancy — hips flexed and knees bent with the legs and feet crossed tightly up against the abdomen — it's no surprise that a newborn's legs and feet tend to curve inward.
It's normal for a baby's abdomen belly to appear somewhat full and rounded. When your baby cries or strains, you may also note that the skin over the central area of the abdomen may protrude between the strips of muscle tissue making up the abdominal wall on either side.
This almost always disappears during the next several months as a baby grows. Many parents are concerned about the appearance and care of their infant's umbilical cord. The cord contains three blood vessels two arteries and a vein encased in a jelly-like substance. Following delivery, the cord is clamped or tied off before it's cut to separate the infant from the placenta. The umbilical stump is then simply allowed to wither and drop off, which usually happens in about 10 days to 3 weeks.
You may be instructed to swab the area with alcohol periodically or wash it with soap and water if the stump becomes dirty or sticky to help prevent infection until the cord falls off and the stump dries up.
The baby's navel area shouldn't be submerged in water during bathing until this occurs. The withering cord will go through color changes, from yellow to brown or black — this is normal. You should consult your baby's doctor if the navel area becomes red or if a foul odor or discharge develops. Umbilical navel hernias are common in newborns, particularly in infants of African heritage. These hernias are generally harmless and aren't painful to the infant.
Most close on their own during the first few years, but a simple surgical procedure can fix the hernia if it doesn't close by itself. Home remedies for umbilical hernias that have been tried through the years, such as strapping and taping coins over the area, should not be attempted. These techniques are ineffective and may result in skin infections or other injuries. The genitalia sexual organs of both male and female infants may appear relatively large and swollen at birth. It's due to several factors, including exposure to hormones produced by both the mother and the fetus, bruising and swelling of the genital tissues related to birth trauma, and the natural course of development of the genitalia.
In girls, the outer lips of the vagina labia majora may appear puffy at birth. The skin of the labia may be either smooth or somewhat wrinkled. Sometimes, a small piece of pink tissue may protrude between the labia — this is a hymenal tag and it's of no significance; it will eventually recede into the labia as the genitals grow.
Due to the effects of maternal hormones, most newborn girls will have a vaginal discharge of mucus and perhaps some blood that lasts for a few days. This "mini-period" is normal menstrual-type bleeding from the infant's uterus that occurs as the estrogen passed to the infant by the mother begins to disappear.
Although it's much more common in boys, swelling in the groin of an infant girl can indicate the presence of an inguinal groin hernia. In boys, the scrotum the sack containing the testicles often looks swollen. This is usually due to a hydrocele , a collection of fluid in the scrotum of infant boys that usually disappears during the first 3 to 6 months. You should call your doctor about swelling or bulging in your son's scrotum or groin that lasts beyond 3 to 6 months or that seems to come and go.
This may indicate an inguinal hernia, which usually requires surgical treatment. The testicles of newborn boys may be difficult to feel in the swollen scrotum. Muscles attached to the testicles pull them up into the groin briskly when the genital area is touched or exposed to a cool environment.
Infant boys also normally experience frequent penile erections , often just before they urinate. If your baby is delivered in a hospital, nursery personnel will want to know if this happens while your infant is with you. If a newborn doesn't urinate for what seems like a while at first, it may be that he or she urinated immediately after birth while still in the delivery room. With all the activity going on, that first urination may not have been noticed. If your infant son was circumcised , it usually takes between 7 to 10 days for the penis to heal.
Until it does, the tip may seem raw or yellowish in color. Although this is normal, certain other symptoms are not. Call your child's doctor right away if you notice persistent bleeding, redness around the tip of the penis that gets worse after 3 days, fever , signs of infection such as the presence of pus-filled blisters , and not urinating normally within 6 to 8 hours after the circumcision.
With both circumcised and uncircumcised penises, no cotton swabs, astringents, or any special bath products are needed — simple soap and warm water every time you bathe your baby will do the trick. No special washing precautions are needed for newly circumcised babies, other than to be gentle, as your baby may have some mild discomfort after the circumcision. If your son has a bandage on his incision, you might need to apply a new one whenever you change his diaper for a day or two after the procedure put petroleum jelly on the bandage so it won't stick to his skin.
Doctors often also recommend putting a dab of petroleum jelly on the baby's penis or on the front of the diaper to alleviate any potential discomfort caused by friction against the diaper. How you take care of your baby's penis may also vary depending on the type of circumcision procedure the doctor performs. Be sure to discuss what after-care will be needed. If your baby boy wasn't circumcised, be sure to never forcibly pull back the foreskin to clean beneath it. Instead, gently tense it against the tip of the penis and wash off any smegma the whitish "beads" of dead skin cells mixed with the body's natural oil.
Over time, the foreskin will retract on its own so that it can be pulled away from the glans toward the abdomen. This happens at different times for different boys, but most can retract their foreskins by the time they're 5 years old. There's little doubt about the origin of the expression "still wet behind the ears," used to describe someone new or inexperienced.
Newborns are covered with various fluids at delivery, including amniotic fluid and often some blood the mother's, not the baby's. Nurses or other personnel attending the birth will promptly begin drying the infant to avoid a drop in the baby's body temperature that will occur if moisture on the skin evaporates rapidly.
Newborns are also coated with a thick, pasty, white material called vernix caseosa made up of the fetus' shed skin cells and skin gland secretions , most of which will be washed off during the baby's first bath.
The hue and color patterns of a newborn's skin may be startling to some parents. Mottling of the skin, a lacy pattern of small reddish and pale areas, is common because of the normal instability of the blood circulation at the skin's surface.
For similar reasons, acrocyanosis , or blueness of the skin of the hands and feet and the area surrounding the lips, is often present, especially if the infant is in a cool environment.
When bearing down to cry or having a bowel movement, an infant's skin temporarily may appear beet-red or bluish-purple. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health. When a baby is first born, the skin is a dark red to purple color. As the baby begins to breathe air, the color changes to red.
This redness normally begins to fade in the first day. A baby's hands and feet may stay bluish in color for several days. This is a normal response to a baby's immature blood circulation. Blue coloring of other parts of the body, however, isn't normal.
Some newborns develop a yellow coloring called jaundice. This may be a normal response as the body rids excess red blood cells. However, it may indicate a more serious condition, especially if the yellow color appears in the first day and worsens. Jaundice can often be seen by gently pressing on the baby's forehead or chest and watching the color return.
The whites of the eyes will also be yellowed. Laboratory tests may be needed to assess jaundice. Moulding is the elongation of the shape of a baby's head. It occurs when the movable bones of the baby's head overlap to help the baby pass through the mother's birth canal. Normal shape usually returns by the end of the first week.
This is a white, greasy, cheeselike substance that covers the skin of many babies at birth. It's formed by secretions from the baby's oil glands and protects the baby's skin in the amniotic fluid during pregnancy.
Vernix may not be present in babies who are born post-term after 41 weeks of pregnancy. It doesn't need to be removed and usually absorbs into the skin. This is soft, downy hair on a baby's body, especially on the shoulders, back, forehead, and cheeks. It's more noticeable in premature babies, but isn't usually seen in babies born very late in pregnancy. Milia are tiny, white, hard spots that look like pimples on a newborn's nose. They may also appear on the chin and forehead.
Milia form from oil glands and disappear on their own. When these occur in a baby's mouth and gums, they are called Epstein pearls. From birth to four months, infants should consume breast milk or an unmodified milk substitute.
As infants grow, food supplements are added. Many parents choose commercial, ready-made baby foods to supplement breast milk or formula for the child, while others adapt their usual meals for the dietary needs of their child. Whole cow's milk can be used at one year, but lower-fat milk is not recommended until the child is 2 to 3 years old.
Weaning is the process through which breast milk is eliminated from the infant's diet through the introduction of solid foods in exchange for milk. Children need more sleep than adults—up to 18 hours for newborn babies, with a declining rate as the child ages.
Until babies learn to walk, they are carried in the arms, held in slings or baby carriers, or transported in baby carriages or strollers. Most industrialized countries have laws requiring child safety seats for babies in motor vehicles. Infants respond to the sound of snake hissing, angry voices of adults, the crackling sound of a fire, thunder, and the cries of other infants.
They have a drop in heart rate, their eyes blinking, increased turning toward the speakers or parent, all of these indicating that they were paying more attention. This is believed by some to be evolutionary response to danger.
Studies have shown that infants who have been the recipients of positive touch experience more benefits as they develop emotionally and socially. Experiments have been done with infants up to four months of age using both positive touch stroking or cuddling and negative touch poking, pinching or tickling.
The infants who received the positive touch cried less often and also vocalized and smiled more than the infants who were touched negatively. Infants who were the recipients of negative touching have been linked with emotional and behavioral problems later in life. A lower amount of physical violence in adults has been discovered in cultures with greater levels of positive physical touching.
The infant is undergoing many adaptations to extrauterine life , and its physiological systems, such as the immune system , are far from fully developed. Potential diseases of concern during the neonatal period include:. Infant mortality is the death of an infant in the first year of life, often expressed as the number of deaths per live births infant mortality rate.
Major causes of infant mortality include dehydration , infection , congenital malformation and SIDS. This epidemiological indicator is recognized as a very important measure of the level of health care in a country because it is directly linked with the health status of infants, children, and pregnant women as well as access to medical care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health practices. There is a positive relationship between national wealth and good health.
The rich and industrialized countries of the world, prominently Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan, spend a large proportion of their wealthy budget on the health care system. As, a result, their health care systems are very sophisticated, with many physicians, nurses, and other health care experts servicing the population. Thus, infant mortality is low. On the other hand, a country such as Mexico, which spends disproportionately less of its budget on healthcare, suffers from high mortality rates.
This is because the general population is likely to be less healthy. For instance, non-Hispanic black women have an infant mortality rate of Attachment theory is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory whereby the infant or child seeks proximity to a specified attachment figure in situations of alarm or distress for the purpose of survival. Attachment is not the same as love or affection although they often go together. Attachment and attachment behaviors tend to develop between the age of 6 months and 3 years.
Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some time. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment, which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings, thoughts, and expectations in later relationships.
A lack of attachment or a seriously disrupted capacity for attachment could potentially amount to serious disorders. Infants develop distinct relationships to their mothers, fathers, siblings, and non- familial caregivers.
Babyhood is a critical period in personality development when the foundations of adult personality are laid. Many airlines refuse boarding for all babies aged under 7 days for domestic flights or 14 days for international flights. Asiana Airlines allows babies to board international flights at 7 days of age.
Garuda Indonesia disallows all babies under the age of 14 days to board any flights. Delta Air Lines and Pinnacle Airlines allow infants to travel when they are less than 7 days old when they present a physician travel approval letter. Comair requires a letter if the infant is 12 days or younger. Skywest will not allow an infant less than 8 days old on board. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the very young child. For other uses, see Infant disambiguation.
For other uses, see Baby disambiguation , Newborn disambiguation , and Babyhood disambiguation. Adaptation to extrauterine life.
A baby's skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby's age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. This is a white, greasy, cheeselike substance that covers the skin of many babies at birth. A newborn's genitals may appear different depending on the gestational age (the number of weeks of. Online shopping from a great selection at Baby Store. Buy "White Newborn Hat" products like i play.® Newborn Sun Flap Hat in White, i play.® Newborn Brim Sun Hat in White, i play.® Infant Sun Flap Hat in White, i play.